Information on the elemental composition of various materials can be obtained using a variety of analytical methods, most often involving the destruction of matter. Complex substances formed as a result of the combination of chemical elements with each other, number in many hundreds of thousands. These complex substances have a wide variety of properties, and the difference in these properties is determined by differences in chemical composition and differences in the mutual arrangement of atoms (structure). Only diffraction methods have the unique ability to characterize crystalline phases. The concept of a crystalline phase defines a spatially uniform, equilibrium state of a substance, characterized by a certain elemental composition and structure.


Standards, rules and regulations

ASTM E915, Standard test method for verifying the alignment of x-ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement. http://www.astm.org/Standards/E915.htm

Description: North American Standard for X-ray Diffraction Goniometer Alignment Verification

 

ASTM E1426, Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for x-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress. http://www.astm.org/Standards/E1426.htm

Description: North American standard for the experimental measurement of elastic constants using X-ray diffraction methods.

 

SAE HS784, Residual Stress Measurement by X-ray Diffraction. http://books.sae.org/hs-784/2003/

Description: This standard brings together what is considered to be the most important aspect of methods for measuring residual stresses in X-ray diffraction. He attaches great importance to the theoretical aspects of X-ray diffraction, and also gives recommendations on how these aspects can be applied in real measurements.

 

ISO / IEC 17025: 2005 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39883

Description: This International Standard specifies general requirements for competence in testing and / or calibration, in particular sampling. It includes testing and calibration, standardized methods, non-standard methods and laboratory-developed methods.

 

ASTM E975 Standard Practice for X-Ray Determination of Retained Austenite in Steel with Near Random Crystallographic Orientation. http://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/E975-00.htm

Description: A standard that describes a method for determining the retained austenite phase in steel using the integral intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks.

 

ANSI / HPS 43.2 Radiation Safety for X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Analysis Equipment. http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0508/ML050840139.pdf

Description: A standard that regulates radiation safety standards when working on X-ray equipment.

 

НРБ-99. Radiation safety standards. http://www.wdcb.ru/mining/zakon/NRB99.htm

Description: used to ensure human safety in all conditions of exposure to ionizing radiation of artificial or natural origin.

 

ОСП-72/87. Basic sanitary rules for working with radioactive substances and other sources of ionizing radiation.

Description: rules that apply to all enterprises and institutions of all ministries and departments and other public and cooperative organizations where natural and artificial radioactive substances and other sources of ionizing radiation are produced, processed, processed, applied, stored, neutralized and transported.

 

НРБУ-97. Norms of radio safety of Ukraine http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/rada/show/en/v0062282-97

Description: principle, criteria, normative and rules, vikonannya є obov'yazkovyu norm in the policy of the state, for the prevention of anti-anti-social security of people and radio security.


ДСП 6.177-2005-09-02. Basic sanitary rules of radio safety of Ukraine

http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0552-05

Description: the rules to expand on all kinds of viral activity, as well as on all situations involved, in the minds of those who can see how people can be seen to be promising and / or in some joke, be it natural.